PhD-dagen 2019 ved KHM
Velkommen til årets PhD-dag ved KHM!
KHMs forskningsråd ønsker alle tilsatte velkommen til årets PhD-dag ved KHM.
PhD-dagen skal være et seminar hvor KHM setter fokus på PhD-kandidatene våre og den forskning de gjør. Forskningsrådet ved KHM ønsker å bidra til at PhD-kandidatene blir sterkere integrert i museets forskningsmiljøer og virke, her gjennom at de får formidle arbeidet sitt til andre tilsatte ved KHM. Samtidig vil vi gi alle tilsatte en mulighet til å lære mer om stipendiatenes prosjekter.
Alle PhD-kandidater ved KHM vil få presentere prosjektene sine, alle får mat, og det legges også opp til rikelig med "mingle-tid" for mer varierte og uformelle samtaler rundt prosjektene.
Dermed: Sett av dagen allerede nå! Mer informasjon og program kommer etter hvert.
Kontakt email@example.com hvis du har spørsmål.
Med vennlig hilsen KHMs forskningsråd ved Brit, Arne, Caitlin og Steinar
Følgende prosjekter vil bli presentert:
«År uten somre» AD 536: Krise eller adapsjon?
De senere årene har flere forskere trukket frem klimakrise og pest – med påfølgende befolkningsnedgang – som en grunnleggende eller medvirkende årsak til omfattende sosiale, materielle og ideologiske endringer i overgangen mellom eldre og yngre jernalder i Skandinavia. Sentralt i tolkningene står omfattende naturvitenskapelige beviser for en global klimakrise på 500-tallet.
Jeg argumenterer for at erkjennelsen av klimakrisen ikke er tilstrekkelig for å forstå endringenes karakter. Det er en betydelig regional variasjon i det arkeologiske materialet, som indikerer forskjellige forutsetninger for tilpasning og endring. Med et utgangspunkt i antropologisk og arkeologisk katastrofeforskning – ofte sammenfattet som resiliensteori – mener jeg at både kulturelle og klimatiske faktorer må vektlegges for å forstå endringsprosessene. For å oppnå dette må utviklingsforløpet analyseres over et lengre tidsrom.
I mitt arbeid tar jeg for meg det jordbruks- og bosetningshistoriske materialet fra jernalderen i to områder; Gudbrandsdalen og Mjøsregionen. Jeg har valgt disse områdene fordi de utgjør det samme overordnete dal- og elvesystemet – og dermed påvirkes av beslektede klimaforhold og kulturelle impulser – men likevel har ulike forutsetninger for bosetning, jordbruk og erverv.
Min hypotese er at økende sårbarhet for klimaendringer, forårsaket av jordbruksekspansjon mot marginale områder i eldre jernalder, svekket samfunnets evne til å absorbere kritiske naturhendelser. En rekke sammenfallende begivenheter mot slutten av folkevandringstid, som klimaforverring, jordbrukskrise og geopolitiske omveltninger på kontinentet, bidro til å sentrere makt og innflytelse i velbergede enheter – avhengig av de ulike gruppenes forutsetninger for tilpasning. Varierende kulturelle og naturlige forhold har medført ulike konsekvenser både på lokale og regionale nivåer. Det er disse forutsetningene som står i sentrum for analysene i mitt prosjekt.
Effects of fluctuating climate and deformation characteristics of complex archaeological wooden objects. A study of the hygro-mechanical behaviour and deformation of the Oseberg and Gokstad ships.
The Viking ship museum at Bygdøy (VSH) houses one of the most comprehensive collections of wooden Viking Age objects in the world. Most of the objects are in display cases with a controlled climate. However, three ships, two smaller boats, a burial chamber and some other objects are exhibited openly and exposed to the climate variations within the building envelope Investigations the resent years has also revealed that the current state of deformation issues of the ships on display were larger and more complex than expected. What is quite clear is that the ships are in need of extended and improved support systems.
Large complex wooden structures in cultural heritage, ships in particular, are prone to gradual three-dimensional deformation. Just from the mere size or structural complexity of the objects, it can be hard to assess small deformations on a global level due to creep and crack formations, or movement induced by fluctuating climate. The overall changes can be slow, but gradually developing into more obvious problems.
This PhD project is part of the preventive conservation of the Saving Oseberg project. The main objective of this sub project is to identify relevant behavioural patterns of complex wooden structures with regards to effects of fluctuating climate, and deformation characteristics. It will also be pointed out how deformation (strain), measured by fixed target photogrammetry, can be contextualized with other methodologies such as static and dynamic load distribution (stress), and their correlations with climate monitoring.
The aim of this new methodological approach is to get an improved tool applicable for monitoring mechanical response to fluctuating climate, help evaluating allowable mechanical loads to minimize deformation in an exhibition setting, optimize climate set points, and define basic data input for numerical modelling approaches such as FEM. The methods proposed can be applied on any wood species, historical or archaeological, but are limited to wood in a preservation state capable of structural functionality.
Archaeology, cultural Heritage, political conflict and national identity : Sri Lankan archaeology and hertiage practices, political cosmology and nationalist discourses
My PHD Research revolves around a study of the organization of practices and discourses in Sri Lanka related to archaeological and heritage sites located in the Tamil dominated North-East of the island. I will present a brief overview of the state institutions involved in the official administration, and the procedures of their responsibilities.I conducted field trip to these sites, mainly Nainathivu, Kantarodai and Seruwila-Kanniya in the Tamil North and East. These are a admixture of archaeological, hertiage, religious sites and grounds the presence of commercial and state-military interests, state insitutional actors, Sinhala Buddhist monastic and civil society actors and religious pilgrims. Such a constellation is complicated by the historically consituted legacies of political and armed conflict between the nation-state of Sri lanka, Sinhala Budhdist nationalist and Tamil political and armed militant movements demanding self-determination in the Tamil speaking people dominated North and East of the country. These sites are located amidst Tamil villages, town, and local communities and harbouring the protests of Tamil political and civic actors and insitutions. I also conducted ethnographic studies on institutions and actors of the state concerning particular sites as well the engagement of Sinhala Buddhist civil society organisations and pilgrims who engages towards these sites. Another crucial dimension in my Research is to highlight how the state and Sinhala civil society actors engages in producing historical narratives and archaeological or heritage practices and knowledge concerning Tamil inhabited territory, as well such narratives role in the actual management of such sites. The perspectives and connexion of Tamil local community members, political representatives, local bureaucracy, provincial government and civil society leaders with such sites will also be illuminated alongside a discussion and analysis of the practical implication of crystalization of contested Heritage in the case of Sri Lanka. Tamil political and civic actors understanding or relation to the various institutions of state and Sinhala civil societies which are involved in producing and reproducing discourse and practices at sites in the North-East will also be highligthed. How do International organizations within the field of archeology and cultural heritage, such as UNESCO and ICOMOS relate to the context of Sri Lanka, and the apparent contradictions and political conflict which underpins this apparent universal and apolitical landscape of cultural heritage ?
Hunter-gatherers and the changing environment - vulnerability and resilience among hunter-gatherers in southeast norway and central sweden, c. 9000-7600 cal bp
The PhD project aims to investigate the vulnerability and resilience to climate-induced changes in the environment among hunter-gatherer groups in southeast Norway and interior, central Sweden using a climatic deterioration 8200 years ago as a case study. The so-called 8200 cal BP event is among the best documented climate events in the Holocene and is detected as a significant, but short–term fall in temperatures in multiple palaeoenvironmental records in the North Atlantic region. In archaeological research, the event has been connected to cultural and demographic changes across Europe.
The cooling event is detected in several palaeoenvironmental records from Southern Norway, the Norwegian Sea, and Western and Central Sweden, and this project aims to investigate if the event had any impact on the settlement in the case study area. Are there any demographic changes following the climatic cooling? Are there any changes in settlement patterns or mobility strategies? How vulnerable were the hunter-gatherers to climate-induced changes in the environment? Are there different strategies in inland versus coastal areas?
The project will investigate human responses to climate change by using two different scales of analysis, and will apply the following methods: Temporal distribution of shoreline dated sites and summed calibrated radiocarbon dates as a proxy for human activity over time (large-scale) and minimum analytical nodule analysis (MANA) of lithic assemblages (small-scale).
What is the deal with things?
A study of attitudes and practices among archaeologists and metal detectorists in Norway
The purpose of the project is to explore why, and how, things in general and metal detecting finds in particular evoke feelings, provoke debate, engage and entangle us. What drives people to search for and research old things? How does Norway's metal detectorists and archaeologists interact with and view each other, and in what ways has this changed over time? How can the accumulation and distribution of metal detecting finds inform our knowledge about the development and history of metal detecting as a hobby and archaeological excavation tool? To answer these questions various types of data and methods are used. Both metal detectorists and archaeologists are interviewed, metal detecting finds from the country's five find databases is collected and extensive searches in the digital archives of Norway's national library are done.
Economic diversity and demographic variability in south Norway 6000-4000 BP
The aim of this PhD research project is to explore demographic variability and economic diversity in south Norway in a period that roughly covers the Neolithic (5900-3800 cal BP). What were the demographic effects of the introduction of farming and husbandry in south Norway? Does this economic shift represent a single event, or did it happen multiple times during the Neolithic? How did the early farming communities adapt to the natural conditions in south Norway, the archipelago, the valleys and the high mountains? The project approaches these questions on different scales (e.g. ‘globally’, regionally, and at the site-level). Methods employed are Monte Carlo based statistical analysis of radiocarbon dates, Bayesian phase boundary calculation of radiocarbon dates, fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and radiocarbon dating of artefacts, climate reconstruction, correspondence analysis, technological and typological analysis of lithic and ceramic artefacts, symmetry index calculation, GIS, and archaeological excavation.