Instruments

Instrument
Published May 16, 2022 3:30 PM

X-ray fluorescence is an elemental analysis technique, similar to EDS where an X-ray beam interacts with a material and generates secondary X-rays/fluorescence with specific energies for each chemical element found in the material.

Close up of an instrument in a laboratory.
Published May 16, 2022 9:56 AM

GC/MS is a technique combining the benefits of two distinct analytical methods: GC to separate organic compounds in a complex sample, and MS to facilitate their characterisation, identification and/or quantification.

Image may contain: Gadget, Machine, Computer hardware, Personal computer hardware, Gas.
Published May 16, 2022 9:56 AM

High Performance Liquid Chromatography is a technique of separation, detection and quantitation of organic compounds contained in a sample. It is an analytical method that has a high capacity of providing information on single components of a sample, which is of paramount importance when dealing with complex and unknown mixtures of organic species, such as paint, or archaeological samples. 

Image showing details of an instrument
Published May 16, 2022 9:56 AM

Raman spectroscopy can be used to analyze organic, inorganic, crystalline as well as amorphous materials. Due to its non-destructivity, it is one of the most exploited techniques in the field of heritage science. It is often used as a complementary technique to IR spectroscopy.

Instrument
Published May 16, 2022 9:56 AM

This technique combines two different instruments: a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). SEM is one of most frequently used instruments in the field of cultural heritage because it generates high resolution images in the range of 25x - 10 000x magnification using a beam of electrons instead of visible light, as is used in classical microscopy.

Instrument.
Published May 16, 2022 9:56 AM

X-ray powder diffraction is a technique that uses an X-ray beam to characterize the crystallographic structure of natural and synthetic materials. When crystalline materials are irradiated, a certain portion of the X-ray beams will be scattered by the material’s crystal structure generating a characteristic pattern (diffractogram), unique to each compound.