Kristel Zilmer

Image of Kristel Zilmer
Norwegian version of this page
Room 203
Visiting address St. Olavs gate 29

Research interests

  • Runology - runes and runic inscriptions from the Iron Age through to the Middle Ages   
  • Forms of textual culture in the Viking Age and the Middle Ages
  • Writing, visuality, materiality
  • Identity studies
  • Historical media, mediality, multimodality
  • Artefacts - with foci on script-bearing artefacts 
  • Modern reception of Old Norse literature and culture



2005 PhD (doctor philosophiae) in Scandinavian Philology (specialization in runology and Old Norse philology). University of Tartu, Estonia

2000 Master (magister artium. cum laude) in Scandinavian Philology. University of Tartu, Estonia


2020 (May)... Professor of Runology and Iconography, Department of Archaeology, Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo

2019 (Sept 1) – 2020 (May) Associate Professor of Runology and Iconography, Department of Archaeology, Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo (UiO), Norway

2018 (March 15) – 2019 (Sept 1) Professor of Textual Studies, Department of Language, Literature, Mathematics and Interpreting, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences (HVL), Norway

2013 (Aug) – 2018 (March 15) Associate Professor of Norwegian Literature, Department of Language, Literature, Mathematics and Interpreting, HV

2008-2013   Postdoctoral Fellow, Centre for Medieval Studies (CMS), University of Bergen (UiB), Norway

2005-2008   Lecturer of Scandinavian Studies, Department of Scandinavian Studies, University of Tartu, Estonia

2002-2005   Assistant Lecturer (Norwegian Philology), Department of Scandinavian Studies, University of Tartu, Estonia

1997-2002  Teaching fellow of Norwegian, Section of Scandinavian Studies, University of Tartu, Estonia


Tags: Runology, Epigraphy, Textual Cultures, Old Norse philology, Iconography, Archaeological artefacts, Visual and material culture, Reception Studies


  • Zilmer, Kristel (2020). Runic Sticks and Other Inscribed Objects from Medieval Bergen: Challenges and Possibilities. Maal og Minne.  ISSN 0024-855X.  112(1), s 65- 101 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). 'Gyrðir á lykil (Gyrðir Owns the Key)': Materialized Moments of Communication in Runic Items from Medieval Bergen, In Else Mundal & Amy Mulligan (ed.),  Moving Words in the Nordic Middle Ages: Tracing Literacies, Texts, and Verbal Communities.  Brepols.  ISBN 9782503578101.  Kapittel 7.  s 165 - 200
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Fixed and fleeting? Thoughts on the materiality and mediality of inscribed artefacts from medieval Bergen, In Alessia Bauer; Elise Kleivane & Terje Spurkland (ed.),  Epigraphy in an intermedial context.  Four Courts Press.  ISBN 9781846827167.  6.  s 75 - 100
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). "Nobody owns the myths": Adaptations of Old Norse myth in Tor Åge Bringsværd's Vår gamle gudelære. Scandinavian Studies.  ISSN 0036-5637.  90(2), s 161- 194 . doi: 10.5406/scanstud.90.2.0161
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). Den multimodale middelalderen: om multimodalitet i historisk perspektiv. Norsklæreren.  ISSN 0332-7264.  2016(1), s 44- 58
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). Words in Wood and Stone: Uses of Runic Writing in Medieval Norwegian Churches. Viking and Medieval Scandinavia.  ISSN 1782-7183.  12, s 207- 235 . doi: 10.1484/j.vms.5.112423
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2013). "Christian Prayers and Invocations in Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions from the Viking Age and Middle Ages". Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies.  ISSN 1892-0950.  4, s 129- 171 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2012). Christianity in runes: Prayers in Scandinavian rune stone inscriptions from the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages, In Kristel Zilmer & Judith Jesch (ed.),  Epigraphic Literacy and Christian Identity. Modes of Written Discourse in the Newly Christian European North.  Brepols.  ISBN 978-2-503-54294-2.  Kapittel.  s 99 - 135
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2012). Epigraphic literacy and the communication of Christian culture in Northen Europe, In Kristel Zilmer & Judith Jesch (ed.),  Epigraphic Literacy and Christian Identity. Modes of Written Discourse in the Newly Christian European North.  Brepols.  ISBN 978-2-503-54294-2.  Kapittel 1.  s 1 - 24
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2012). Monumental messages and the voice of individuality and tradition: The case of Scandinavian rune stones, In Slavica Rankovic (ed.),  Modes of Authorship in the Middle Ages.  Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.  ISBN 978-0888448224.  21.  s 389 - 413
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011). Crosses on rune-stones: Functions and interpretations. Current Swedish Archaeology.  ISSN 1102-7355.  19, s 87- 112
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011). Some notes on the depiction of islands in the Baltic Sea according to Old Norse saga literature, In N.Ju. Gvozdetskaja; I.G. Konovalova; E.A. Melnikova & A.V. Podossinov (ed.),  Stanzas of Friendship. Studies in Honour of Tatjana N. Jackson.  Russian Academy of Sciences.  ISBN 978-5-91244-053-3.  Kapittel.  s 436 - 448
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011). The powers and purposes of an insular setting – On some motifs in Old-Norse literature, In Torstein Jørgensen & Gerhard Jaritz (ed.),  Isolated Islands in Medieval Nature, Culture and Mind.  Central European University Press.  ISBN 978-615-5053-24-5.  Kapittel 2.  s 23 - 35
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2010). Broinnskriftene fra Uppland – privat markering og felles praksis, I: Andreas Nordberg & Lars Andersson (red.),  Bro till evigheten. Brons rumsliga, sociala och religiösa dimension under vikingatid och tidig medeltid.  Stockholms läns museum.  ISBN 9187006448.  Kapittel V.  s 42 - 51
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2010). Deictic references in runic inscriptions on voyage runestones. Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies.  ISSN 1892-0950.  1, s 123- 141
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2010). Sailing to the East Sea - On Selected Motifs Concerning the Baltic Sea in Old Norse-Icelandic Literature, In Tatjana Jackson (ed.),  Drevnejshie gosudarstva Vostochnoj Evropy 2009. Transkontinental'nye i lokal'nye puti kak sociokul'turnyj fenomen.  Indrik.  ISBN 9785916740813.  Del I, kpt 7.  s 100 - 117
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2010). Viking Age Rune Stones in Scandinavia: The Interplay between Oral Monumentality and Commemorative Literacy, In Slavica Rankovic; Leidulf Melve & Else Mundal (ed.),  Along the oral-written continuum : types of texts, relations and their implications.  Brepols.  ISBN 978-2-503-53407-7.  Kapittel VI.  s 135 - 162
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2009). From Dilemma to Diversity - Traditional and Modern Approaches to Medieval Icelandic Sagas. Interlitteraria.  ISSN 1406-0701.  14(1), s 69- 83
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2009). On Some Pragmatic and Symbolic Features of Island Representation in Old Norse Literature. Scandinavistica Vilnensis.  ISSN 2029-2112.  2, s 197- 215
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2009). On the Symbiosis of Orality and Literacy in Some Christian Rune Stone Inscriptions, In Agneta Ney; Henrik Williams & Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist (ed.),  Á austrvega. Saga and East Scandinavia. Preprint Papers of the 14th International Saga Conference.  Gävle University Press.  ISBN 9789197832908.  volum 2, artikkel 84.  s 1074 - 1081
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Kommunikatsioonist ja kontaktidest Läänemerepiirkonnas islandlaste saagade andmetel. Sator.  ISSN 1406-2011.  3, s 29- 49
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Scenes of Island Encounters in Icelandic Sagas: Reflections of Cultural Memory. Viking and Medieval Scandinavia.  ISSN 1782-7183.  4, s 227- 248
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Sigvatr Þórðarson: Viikingiviisid. Akadeemia.  ISSN 0235-7771.  (4), s 770- 784
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Vanapõhja luulekunst. Akadeemia.  ISSN 0235-7771.  (4), s 731- 768

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  • Zilmer, Kristel & Jesch, Judith (ed.) (2012). Epigraphic Literacy and Christian Identity. Modes of Written Discourse in the Newly Christian European North. Brepols.  ISBN 978-2-503-54294-2.  273 s. Show summary

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  • Zilmer, Kristel (2020). Bokanmeldelse: Michael P. Barnes: The Runic Inscriptions of the Isle of Man. Based on a manuscript by R.I. Page, and with contributions by James E. Knirk, K. Jonas Nordby, Henrik Williams and Sir David Wilson.. NLT - Norsk lingvistisk tidsskrift.  ISSN 0800-3076.  38, s 173- 181
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2020). Lese og tolke - men først se: Om arbeid med runeinnskrifter. Språkprat. . doi:
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2020). Opplegg om runer for barn og runerunde på Historisk museum.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2020). Runer, helse og helbredelse.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2020). "Tolk disse runene rett." Om å utforske gamle og nye runefunn – ekte og falske.
  • Zilmer, Kristel & Granly Meldalen, Sindre (2020, 13. juli). Fant unik skatt på nabogården.  Dagbladet.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). Ego Sum Lapis: Runic Latin in Scandinavian Medieval Inscriptions.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). Godt øl med runer. Språkprat. . doi:
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). Runic writing in Ireland: Texts and contexts.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). Skrift og materialitet som identitetsuttrykk – vikingtidens runegjenstander.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). ‘The stone says it will long stand here’: On Viking-Age rune-stones in Scandinavia.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). The use of runes in Bergen and other Norwegian towns.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2019). Writing and Reading in Medieval Bergen: The Evidence of Inscribed Artefacts.
  • Dyrkorn Heierland, Ida & Zilmer, Kristel (2018, 06. januar). Runefunn på Finnesloftet.  Avisa Hordaland.
  • Thorvaldsen, Bernt Ø; Berg, Ivar & Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Høringsuttalelse om kjerneelementer i norskfaget fra Samarbeidsnemnda for norrøn filologi.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). "Domnall seal’s-head owns this sword." Inscriptions and interactions in Viking-Age Ireland.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Graffiti: Ord og bilder fra nært og fjernt. Språkprat. . doi:
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Hva forteller kirkeinnskrifter om runebruk på Öland, Gotland og Bornholm?.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). N814 - Folkebibliotekstomta.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Nye funn i gammel skatt. Fortidsvern.  ISSN 1504-4645.  (1), s 34- 39
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Nye runefunn i Finnesloftet.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Runejakt - omvisning på Finnesloftet og presentasjon av runeinnskrifter.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2018). Sagas of Icelanders in Norwegian Literary History.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Middelalderkvinner og runekunnskap. Språkprat. . doi:
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Middelaldermøter i stein: Vg 165 Södra Ving.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Reading and Writing in Medieval Bergen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Runekyndige kvinner i middelalderens Bergen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Runology: Lecture I. [Video ].
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Runology: Lecture II. [Video ].
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Runology: Lecture III. [Video ].
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2017). Women as Rune-Readers and Rune-Writers in Medieval Norway.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). "Dette ristet en blind mann" Å møte runeristere fra middelalderens Bergen..
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). "Gaut laget dette og alle i Man" – om skandinaviske runeinnskrifter på øya Man.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). «Gaut laget dette og alle i Man» Hva vet vi om skandinaviske runeinnskrifter på øya Man?. Språkprat. . doi:
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). Lesing og skriving i middelalderens Bergen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). Review: Irene García Losquiño, The Early Runic Inscriptions: Their Western Features. (Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics 92.). Speculum.  ISSN 0038-7134.  91(2), s 500- 501
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2016). Runic Sticks as Media of Medieval Communication.
  • Zilmer, Kristel & Budal, Ingvil Brugger (2016). Lesing og skriving i middelalderens Bergen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel & Budal, Ingvil Brugger (2016). Reading and Writing in Medieval Bergen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel; Heide, Eldar; Neteland, Randi; Rønning, Morten; Selås, Magnhild; Ytreland, Stina & Gregersen, Andreas Skiri (2016). Vil du lære å skrive runeskrift?.
  • Slottemo, Hilde Gunn; Sandvik, Hilde; Smith-Solbakken, Marie; Bull, Ida; Halvorsen, Marit; Opsahl, Erik; Nedrelid, Gudlaug; Solli, Arne; Zilmer, Kristel; Knirk, James E; Haugen, Odd Einar; Spørck, Bjørg Dale & Eriksen, Gunnar Ketil (2015). Uinformert omorganisering av Arkivverket. Morgenbladet.  ISSN 0805-3847.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2015). Den multimodale middelalderen – i klasserommet og utenfor.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2015). Odins ansikt og innsikt: Om adaptasjoner av norrøn mytologi i Vår gamle gudelære.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2015). Old Norse Myth in Contemporary Scandinavian Multimodal Narratives for Children and Young Adults.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2015). Runic Writing in Medieval Bergen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2014). "Kunst, håndverk og lek med språket – om gjendiktning av lyrikk for barn".
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2014). "Moderne bildebøker som allalderbøker".
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2014). Om språket - innanfrå og utanfrå.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2014). "‘Sight Words’ in Medieval Runic Inscriptions – A Strategy of Runic Literacy?".
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2014). "'Sveinn risti rúnar þessar ok bað Lúciu ráða'. Om skriving og lesing i middelalderens Bergen".
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2013). Pleasure and Pastime in Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2013). The Sea of Contact: The Baltic Sea and Its Narrative Representation in Old Norse Sources.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2012). Ave Maria og Pater Noster i nordiske runeinnskrifter.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2012). Christian Identity-Building and Social Status in Scandinavia in the 10th and 11th Centuries: The Evidence of Runic Inscriptions.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2012). Runer på Bryggen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2012). Runic Graffiti and Inscriptional Practices in Medieval Scandinavia.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011). Kristen tro og identitet i lys av skandinaviske runeinnskrifter fra ca. 900-1200.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011, 13. mars). Nordic runes and their connection to the Old Nordic Culture. [Radio].  Studentradioen i Bergen, programmet "Hodgepodge".
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011). Runic Graffiti and Christian Symbols in Norwegian Stave Churches.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011). Ruunid ja ladina kiri keskaegses Skandinaavias –kahe kirjakultuuri eripärad ja koostoime [Runes and Latin script in medieval Scandinavia - the co-existence of two written cultures].
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2011). Tradition and Individual Variation in Swedish Rune Stone Inscriptions.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2010). On the Function and Role of Crosses on Scandinavian Rune Stones and Grave Stones (10th-12th centuries).
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2010). Runes and Christianity: Practices in the Viking Age and the Middle Ages.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2009). Brosteiner som minnesmerker og identitetsmarkører. Om noen private og offentlige funksjoner til runesteiner som omtaler broer.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2009). Christianity in Runes: On Some Contexts of Application in Viking and Medieval Scandinavia.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2009, 25. oktober). Om runekyndighet i vikingtiden og middelalderen. [Radio].  NRK. Språkteigen.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Creating a Rune Stone: Commemorative Monuments in Early Medieval Scandinavia and the Question of Distributed Authorship.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). 'Gyda Says You Shall Go Home'. On some Extra-curricular Activities of Medieval Bergeners.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Islands as Sites of Religious Transformations – on Some Aspects of Island Representation in Old Norse Literature.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Scandinavian Viking and Medieval Runic Inscriptions as Expressions of Christian Identity in a Transformational and Comparative Setting.
  • Zilmer, Kristel (2008). Viking and Medieval Runic Inscriptions as Expressions of Christian Identity.

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Published Oct. 3, 2019 8:13 AM - Last modified June 21, 2021 10:44 AM